In order to further explain this issue, the solar cells have been studied with a crack percentage of 19.5%. Such a crack percentage value is very similar to the one in the solar cells used in the recent solar radiation study, which used a crack percentage of 19.6%9. As expected, the power of the solar cells with a 19.5% crack percentage is higher than the power of the solar cell with the 20% crack percentage. The same is observed for the 60-cell PV modules. The difference between them is only around 0.4 W/m2. The power variation of the 60-cell module is around 1.
In the following figure, the observed output power for the sample with the biggest crack percentage (58% crack percentage) is compared with the power corresponding to the crack-free sample. Two significant differences are noticeable: 1) the output power corresponding to the crack-free sample is centered around 0.4 W/m2, while the observed power of the sample with the biggest crack percentage is centered around 0.7 W/m2. The standard deviation of this observed power is 0.02, which is smaller than the standard deviation of the power estimated from the crack-free sample (0.05). This is because the average of the power corresponding to the crack-free sample is centered around 0.4 W/m2, and also that the crack-free sample displayed a more uniform distribution of the output power, while the biggest crack percentage sample displayed a heterogeneous distribution. The biggest crack percentage sample is also not centered around a consistent output power value; it fluctuated between 0.6 and 1.0 W/m2. Therefore, if the crack percentage is around 50% or higher, the actual value of the output power corresponding to the cracked sample is likely to vary significantly.
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