In order to be well prepared to teach, a teacher needs to have a basic understanding of a number of important areas of knowledge. The areas must be covered as part of the teacher's overall preparation and preparation for the content to be taught. These areas are (1) topics and key concepts to be taught, (2) the needs of students, (3) the role of the teacher in student learning, (4) the role of the teacher in the school and district, (5) the teaching profession, (6) the teaching and learning process, (7) the teacher's pedagogical strategies and methods, (8) the teaching and learning environment, (9) the teacher's use of technology, (10) the teaching of mathematics, (11) the teaching of science, (12) the teaching of social studies, (13) the teaching of foreign language, and (14) professional responsibility and ethics. These areas of knowledge are clearly interrelated. A teacher who has a basic knowledge of each area will be better able to meet the needs of all students. A teacher who has a basic knowledge of these areas will be better able to interact with the needs of students and the school and district. Students will then be better able to learn. These areas are also interrelated. For example, a teacher's use of teaching strategies and methods will be affected by her understanding of each of the other topics, and her understanding of these topics will be affected by her teaching of content in mathematics and science and her understanding of and use of technology.
A team can better identify the goals of evaluation by identifying what it means to be a good teacher. As a team, stakeholders identify a shared definition of what it means to be a good teacher, and identify areas of concern that the evaluation can target. For example, good teachers are not only those who develop student proficiency, but also those who model and encourage student learning, exhibit student-centered approaches, and support the use of technology. Following this definition, the evaluation can then focus on identifying the conditions, such as practices or content knowledge, that support these essential elements of teaching. The research questions that guide the evaluation process can be informed by prior research, as well as stakeholder needs and concerns.
2. Identify the stakeholders. Stakeholders include not only those who must approve the evaluation plan, but also those who may be affected by the evaluation findings. The team must consider whether to invite all stakeholders (e.g., students, parents, school staff, and board members) or a subset of them. For instance, school libraries have stakeholders that include parents, students, and teachers. When evaluating a school library, the team may also include advisors, school administrators, and school board members.
4. Discuss an alternative evaluation design. If a team wishes to evaluate an existing program, it might gather information on the program by asking stakeholders about their experiences. If a team wishes to plan an evaluation of a new program, it should design the evaluation plan. The team can incorporate stakeholders’ feedback to improve the evaluation; stakeholders can also provide data on existing programs and programs they plan to introduce. Another possibility is to compare n programs or projects to determine the best approach (e.g., which model works best?). 827ec27edc