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Also included are flat counters for SH-2 and SH-60 helicopters, SM2MR surface-to-air missile, AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile, BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missile, ASROC standoff torpedo, and Mk-46 torpedo.
RESTON, Va.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The U.S. Navy awarded Science Applications International Corp. (NYSE: SAIC) a prime contract worth approximately $60 million to continue to provide mission engineering support by testing heavyweight and lightweight torpedoes for the Naval Sea Systems Command.
As part of the single-award contract, SAIC will prepare the test facility and test torpedoes, interface the test torpedo, execute the test, and collect and process test data. Additionally, SAIC will support preparing torpedoes for testing at off-site test ranges and locations. SAIC will also provide maintenance, upgrades, and operational support for test torpedo assembly and turnaround, system and subsystem testing, data reduction, test equipment operation, and data and configuration management.
Submarine Torpedo Fire Control Manual, is a training and reference manual from 1952. It describes how to plan a submarine's approach and attack using the fire control systems on Fleet and Guppy submarines with straight running torpedos (without homing, wire guidance, etc.). It represents the submarine fire control problem of WW II and the immediate post war period.In this online version of the manual we haveattempted to keep the flavor of the original layout while taking advantageof the Web's universal accessibility. Different browsers and fonts will causethe text to move, but the text will remain roughly where it is in theoriginal manual. In addition to errors we have attempted to preserve from the original,this text was captured by a combination of optical character recognitionand human typist. Each method creates errors that are compounded whileencoding for the Web. Please report any typos, or particularly annoying layout issues to the Mail Feedback Form for correction.Thank you to the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, USS Cobia for providing a photocopy of the manual.Richard PekelneyWebmaster
Our submarines during and since the last war have demonstrated their ability to accomplish a variety of special missions of which they had previously been considered incapable. Many of them have been so altered that the accomplishment of these missions have become their primary duties. The primary mission of the true submarine, however, remains, today as it has always been, the delivery of successful torpedo attacks against the ships of an enemy.The types of targets which a submarine may encounter are many and varied, i.e., single unescorted merchantmen, single destroyers, submerged submarines, unescorted group of ships, convoys, and task forces. The variety of targets and other unpredictable conditions, such as weather and depth of water, render it impracticable to set forth a procedure or doctrine which will apply under all conditions. The submarine Commanding Officer must rely mainly on his own judgement and experience to insure the completion of a successful attack.There do exist, however, tested and proved procedures and tactics which if followed will assist the submarine Commanding Officer and increase his chances of success. It is the purpose of this book to present to the officers of the Submarine Force under one cover the best known principles of Submarine Fire Control Organization and Torpedo Attack Tactics.viii
100. ANGLE ON THE BOW:The angle between the line of sight and the target's bow measured to port or starboard of the target's bow from 0 degrees to 180 degrees. Symbol: Ab. See Plate I, figure 1.101. APPROACH PHASEThe period during which the submarine maneuvers to close to a position for commencing the Attack Phase.102. APPROACH COURSEThe course or courses taken by the submarine during the Approach Phase.103. ATTACK PHASEThe period during which the submarine maneuvers for a firing position.104. COVERAGEThe ratio of the angular or linear distance between the wing torpedoes of a salvo to the angular or linear length of the target corrected for the torpedo track angle.
105. CRITICAL RANGE:The range at which the submarine normally passes from the Approach Phase to the Attack Phase. It is equal to a 7 1/2 minute run of the target, and may be easily obtained by dividing the target's speed by 4 and multiplying by 1000. Example: Critical range for a 12 knot target is 3000 yards.106. DEFLECTION-ANGLE:The angle between the periscope angle and the component of the gyro angle of the torpedo determined only by track angle, torpedo speed, and target speed. See Plate I, figure 3.
107. DISTANCE TO THE TRACK:The perpendicular distance from the submarine to the target's track extended. See Plate I, figure 1.108. DIVERGENT SPREAD:A spread in which the torpedoes of a salvo intersect the target's track at different points along the target's1-2
109. FIRING COURSEThe course of the submarine at the instant of firing.110. GENERATED BEARINGRelative target bearing obtained from TDC position keeper section Relative Target Bearing dial usually given on "Up scope".111. GYRO ANGLEThe angle between the longitudinal axis of the submarine and the final torpedo track measured right or left of the bow or stern (bow for bow shots, stern for stern shots) of the submarine from 0 degrees to 180 degrees. See Plate I, figure 3.
113. INTERCEPT POINT:The point at which the torpedo crosses the target track. See Plate I, figure 3.114. LEAD ANGLEThe angle between the true bearing of the target and the true course of the submarine (or submarine course reversed for stern tube shots).
A spread in which the torpedoes of a salvo intersect the target's track at different points along the target's length but at the same point on the target's track, and at the same torpedo track angles.
118. OPTIMUM APPROACH COURSE:The Normal Approach Course with an imaginary target moving along the same course, and at the same speed as the actual target, but on the beam of the actual target at a range equal to the limiting torpedo run on the side closest to the submarine. Symbol: OAC.
119. OPTIMUM TORPEDO TRACK ANGLE:The torpedo track angle for which expected errors in target course produce the least change in the deflection angle. See Plate I, figure 2.120. PARALLAX CORRECTION SONARThe algebraic sum of the angular correction compensating for the longitudinal distances between the sonar equipment and the periscope (P1), the center of the target and its propellers (P2), and the initial and developed positions of the target during the transmission of the sound waves.
125. PSEUDO TORPEDO RUN:The distance in yards between the periscope position at the instant of firing and the point of intercept. (See Plate I, figure 3).126. REACH:The initial straight path of the torpedo, measured in yards. Symbol: M. (See Plate I, figure 3).127. REACH AND TURNING RADIUS CORRECTION:An angular correction applied to a computed deflection angle, in angled shots, to correct for the reach (N) and the turning radius (z) of the torpedo in proceeding to its final track.
The angular motion of the MOT of the target between successive torpedoes. (See sketch on preceding page).132. TORPEDO ADVANCE:The perpendicular distance between the torpedo final course and a line through the tube muzzle parallel to the torpedo final course. (See Plate I, figure 3)
133. TORPEDO RUN:The total distance in yards traveled by the torpedo from the tube to the target. (See Plate I, figure 3)134. TORPEDO RUN DIFFERENCE:The actual torpedo run for a given time minus the distance the torpedo would have traveled during the same time at corrected torpedo running speed (final running speed), in yards. Symbol: Uy.135. TORPEDO RUNNING SPEED CORRECTED:The uniform running speed in knots of the torpedo under any given conditions after the initial acceleration is completed. Symbol: S'z.136. TORPEDO TURNING RADIUS:The radius of the circular track, in yards, of the torpedo from the end of the initial straight path to the beginning of the final straight path. Symbol Z. (See Plate I, figure 3).137. TRACK ANGLE:The angle at the point of intercept between the1-11
The offset angle or linear distance along the target's length or track between adjacent torpedoes of a salvo. (See sketch on preceding page).141. VOLUME OF FIRE:The number of torpedoes in a salvo.1-13
An order from the Approach Officer to the Periscope Assistant directing him to lower the periscope until the periscope head is under water. This may be given by holding the hands in a horizontal position following a hand signal to lower the periscope.213. PIP - NO PIP:A phrase used by the ST radar operator when the periscope breaks water to inform the members of the Fire Control Party and the Approach Officer that he can or cannot obtain a range of the target.214. SET DEPTH ____ FEET SPEED HIGH (LOW):An order from the Approach Officer, relayed by the Firing Key Operator, to the Torpedo Tubes directing that the depth and speed spindles on the tubes be set as directed and the spindles withdrawn. The two orders are usually given as one but may be given separately.215. TUBE ORDER FORWARD (AFT) IS ____:An order from the Approach Officer to the Firing Key Operator designating the order in which the torpedo tubes are to be fired. It is also relayed by the Firing Key Operator to the Torpedo Tubes for their information.2-4
An order from the Approach Officer, relayed by the Firing Key Operator to the Torpedo Tubes directing that the designated torpedo tubes be flooded from WRT Tank and be made ready to fire in all respects except for opening the outer doors.217. OPEN THE OUTER DOORS:An order from the Approach Officer, relayed by the Firing Key Operator to the Torpedo Tubes directing that the outer doors of tubes previously flooded be opened. The tubes should then be ready in all respects to fire.218. GYROS FORWARD (AFT) MANNED:A report from the Gyro Angle Setter to the assistant TDC Operator that his station is manned, gyro angle order is set on 000 (180 aft) and the gyro setter is in automatic.219. GYROS FORWARD (AFT) MATCH GYROS IN AUTOMATIC:An order from the Assistant TUC Operator to the Gyro Angle Setter to check his gyro setter in automatic and see that gyro angle order is matching.2-5 2b1af7f3a8