Several studies have shown that lower education as well as increasing age are associated with more severe cognitive impairment. Recently, some studies have suggested that there is a sex difference in cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease and have indicated that this sex difference is present at an earlier disease stage. In this study, we examined the cognitive functions in AD patients and the actuarial rate of their cognitive impairment. We used the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and tests of language and verbal ability to score cognitive functions. The subjects were divided into 4 groups, according to the degree of cognitive impairment determined by the MMSE scores and according to their age: early AD/mild dementia (MMSE below 24), early AD/moderate dementia (24 through 25 with a definite dementia syndrome), moderate AD/mild dementia (26 through 27 on the MMSE with a definite dementia syndrome), and moderate AD/moderate/severe dementia (28 or more on the MMSE without a definite dementia syndrome). We assessed the influence of sex on cognitive function, according to the progression to AD. We examined the rate of cognitive impairment 2 years after the onset of illness and compared the differences in the rates of cognitive impairment in the 4 groups. We found that female patients were more likely to have early AD/mild dementia than male patients. This was true for the occurrence of the female gender alone or for the gender with older age factor (the female: male ratio was 1.7:1.0) or for the gender with increased age factor.
Nursing is one segment of healthcare that lacks well-developed safety culture. As a result, nursing errors, including medication errors, have been cited as the third leading cause of death worldwide. In one of the few attempts to assess and clarify the prevalence of medication errors, urf's 2009 Nursing Safety Climate Survey found a wide variety of reported medication errors and a consistent relation between low nurse safety climate and medication errors. Although open-ended survey questions revealed an understanding of preventable medication errors, responses were inconsistent with regard to the classification of preventable and nonpreventable medication errors. In response, the present study utilized a structured template to identify commonly reported medication errors in all of the 58 units participating in the study. The 108 medication errors represented a wide range of common types of medication errors and were categorized based on the preventability of each error and the need for patient action. d2c66b5586